The birth and development of masks: a symbol of human progressThe birth and development of masks: a symbol of human progress
In recent months, due to the development of the epidemic, masks, which are more common than usual, have become a tight commodity. For a time, many companies have begun to transform and make masks, but have you ever thought that this is the most common for viruses Who invented the mask, one of the most direct and effective tools?
Masks originated in China
According to historical records, during the Western Zhou Dynasty, people realized that mouth and nose droplets had an impact on people's physical health, so they avoided the other party in daily conversations to prevent the droplets from contaminating each other.
In "Book of Rites · Qu Li", there is a record that "negative swords blame, but it is correct", then in the Tang Dynasty great Confucian Kong Yingda commented "cover mouth, fear touches people". Of course, the above are the simplest preventive effects that people have found on the impact of oral and nose droplets on the human body. It can be said that this also laid the birth of masks.
In the 13th century, Marco Polo introduced in his travels that "in the Yuan Dynasty palaces, people who donate food use silk cloth to cover their noses and mouths, so that they don't touch food and drink." The muzzle with silk cloth introduced in the middle has also become the first documented mask in the world so far. At this time, people have gradually established a sense of protection for personal safety.
Advances in medicine have driven the development of masks
After that, the medical standards of all countries in the world have continued to improve. In 1947, the assistant professor at the Vienna General Hospital in Austria, Ignatiz Philip Semmervis discovered that the infection was caused by pathogenic bacteria, which was also given to later Research indicates the direction. In 1861, more than ten years later, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur confirmed the existence of bacteria in the air with a gooseneck. This famous experiment was once a mandatory course in primary school textbooks.
With the above research, in 1897, the German microbiologist Kyle Frog and his students jointly verified the harmfulness of respiratory droplets, and confirmed in the petri dish loud talking, coughing, sneezing, etc. Bacteria spreads in all behaviors.
After that, people's prevention of viruses became more and more strict. After continuous improvement and experimentation, people eventually invented the earliest masks, and advocated that doctors wear masks during operations, which is obviously a step forward for humans. A big step can also be said that hospital research has promoted the development of masks.
The mask revolution and its improvement
The earliest invented masks just wrapped the mouth and nose with a simple single layer of gauze. In some closed or airtight environments, people wearing masks will feel sultry and not breathing smoothly, which has a relatively big drawback.
In 1897, when the German doctor Mikulic and the students realized this problem, they began to reform the masks. They changed the original single-layer gauze into double-layer gauze and cut it into a rectangle, and then used it again. The wire is made into a frame, and bags are sewn on both sides, tied to the back of the user's head, so that the mask has become a three-dimensional style, which is somewhat similar to the mask we use now.
After a series of studies, the French doctor Paul discovered that only 6 layers of gauze can completely stop the spread of droplets in the mouth, but the 6 layers of gauze are too thick. After such discovery, he improved the mask. It is directly sewed on the collar of the clothes. When you use it, you only need to turn the mask over and hold it by hand. Although it is inconvenient, it greatly protects the safety of medical staff.
The popularity of masks
Long before the mask was invented in the United States, pneumonic plague spread from Lake Baikal in Russia to Manchuria in China in 1910. This severe infectious disease basically spread to more than half of China within a month.
At this time, Wu Liande, the deputy supervisor of Tianjin Beiyang Army Medical College, was ordered in critical condition to start the investigation and treatment of the epidemic. After a series of tests, Wu Liande found that the main reason for the rapid spread of the plague virus was droplet transmission.
In order to effectively control this disease, he invented a new type of mask. This mask, which only cost two and a half minutes at that time, was popularized nationwide under the impetus of the epidemic and Wu Liande.
It is also because of the promotion and popularization of masks that the raging pneumonic plague was brought under control and was completely ended after 4 months. It can be said that the elimination of pneumonic plague, the role of masks is very large. He also referred to the mask he invented as the "Wu Shi mask", which has still existed until now.
So far, masks are no longer special for medical personnel. In our daily life, many people have the habit of wearing masks, which has played a good role in dealing with environmental pollution and wind and sand weather. It can be said that the invention of the mask is a major symbol of human progress.