LLDPE Mulch covering methodsMulching
It has the effect of reducing the impact of raindrops and preventing the formation of scouring and crusts; it can effectively reduce the evaporation of soil moisture, protect the soil from drought, increase the moisture after rain, and promote the mulching of crops. It refers to a measure of covering the ground with agricultural plastic films. . The absorption and growth of water can improve the efficiency of soil water use; it can keep the soil at a suitable temperature and humidity, slow down the ground temperature, and last for a long time, which is conducive to the decomposition and decomposition of fertilizers and improves the fertility of the land.  It is easy to use and has a large increase in yield. It is a common measure that can both prevent soil erosion and increase crop yield.
Chinese name plastic film mulching properties, agricultural cultivation techniques, temperature increase, water retention, fertilizer retention and other maximum effects increase soil temperature
table of Contents
▪Flat border coverage
▪ High ridge coverage
▪High border coverage
▪Gully furrow cover
▪ Ditch cover
▪Cave pit cover
4 Rice mulch
5 Tobacco cultivation techniques
The biggest effect of plastic film mulching cultivation is to raise the soil temperature. When the plastic film is used to cover the sun during the low temperature in spring, the temperature in the soil layer of 0-10 cm deep can be increased by 1-6 ℃, up to 8 ℃. In the high temperature period, if there is no shading, the temperature of the surface layer of the soil under the plastic film can reach 50-60 ° C. When the soil is dry, the surface temperature will be higher. But when there is crop shading, or when the surface of the plastic film is covered with soil or silt, the soil temperature is only 1-5 ℃ higher than the open field. When the soil approaches, the soil temperature is about 0.5-1.0 ℃ lower than the open field, and the highest can be 3 ℃ lower. At night, the temperature of the soil under the plastic film is only 1-2 ℃ higher than that of the open field due to the influence of external cold air. The warming effect of plastic film cover varies according to the coverage period, coverage method, weather conditions and types of plastic film .
Due to the strong airtightness of the film, the film can significantly reduce the evaporation of soil water after being mulched to stabilize the soil moisture and keep it moist for a long time, which is conducive to root growth. In the arid area, the methods of artificially building soil moisture and supplementing soil moisture can be used for drought resistance planting. In more urgent situations, the soil particle size in the 0-25 cm deep soil layer is generally more than 50% higher than the open field. With the deepening of the conversion soil layer, the water difference gradually decreases.
The crops covered by the plastic film are flourishing, transpiration consumes water, and water shortage is prone to occur under the same management situation. Attention should be paid to irrigation to prevent drought and yield reduction. Because the mulching film has the effect of warming and moisturizing, it is beneficial to the determination of soil microorganisms. After covering the mulching film, the available nitrogen can increase by 30-50%, potassium by 10-20%, and phosphorus by 20-30%. After the film is covered, the nutrients covered by the film are higher in the early stage of the crop, but tend to decrease in the later period. When producing vegetables, attention should be paid to top dressing in the later stage, otherwise the result is that the film mulch can avoid soil compaction caused by irrigation or rain erosion, can reduce the labor of plowing, and can make the soil loose and good permeability. Can it increase the total soil content by 1-10% and reduce the bulk density by 0.02-0.3 grams? Cm-3, it can increase the stability of the soil by 1.5%, so that the conditions of fertilizer, water, gas and heat in the soil can be coordinated. At the same time, it can prevent the occurrence of back alkali and reduce the harm of salting.
After the mulch is covered, it can be implanted into the plant at noon. The lower leaves get 12-14% more reflected light, which increases the amount of light 3-4 times compared to the open field. Therefore, the apples at the bottom of the trunk can be colored well, the flowers and flowers are bright, and the tobacco leaves The condition is good. The photosynthesis intensity of tomato can be increased by 13.5-46.8%, the content of chlorophyll is increased by about 5%, and the senescence period of the middle and lower leaves can be extended, and the accumulation of dry matter can be promoted, so the yield can be increased.
Between sunny days and high temperatures between the mulch and the ground, high temperatures of around 50 ° C often occur, causing grass buds and weeds to die. The use of herbicides before and after covering the film can prevent weeds from overgrowing and reduce the labor required for weeding. However, poor film quality or no herbicide application can also cause grass shortages. After covering with plastic film, the plant grows vigorously, which can enhance disease resistance and reduce the incidence of disease. Covering the silver-gray reflective film to overcome the effect of aphids can reduce the spread of viral diseases.
However, there are some adverse effects in the mulching film cultivation, such as covering the mulching film for many years, and the residual film is not cleaned, causing soil pollution. Due to the rapid decomposition of organic matter after the mulching, the crop yield is high, and the fertilizer is replenished, the fertility of the land is reduced or In dry sandy land, barren land, heavy clay soil, it is not suitable to use plastic film to cover cultivation. Because the soil temperature of the dry sandy land is covered with plastic film at noon, it is easy to be on the barren land, and it is not convenient to apply fertilizer after the film is covered. When the planting is supplemented with insufficient basic fertilizer, the cover cannot increase production. The heavy clay soil is rough and rough during drought, so when mulching, it is necessary to master certain conditions in order to achieve early maturity, high yield and stable yield by using plastic film to cover cultivation. It is difficult to align the debris, and it is difficult to adhere to the ground after covering the film. The film is easy to break and run away when the wind is strong.
The method of film mulching varies according to local natural conditions, crop types, production seasons and cultivation habits.
The border surface is flat, with borders, the border width is 1.00-1.65 meters, and the border length depends on the plot. Before sowing or planting, mulch the film flatly, and the surrounding area is compacted with soil. Or temporary coverage in the short term. Covering time, saving time, it has a warming effect at the beginning of the coverage, aggravating the transformation pollution, and cooling effect at the later stage. Generally used to grow onions, garlic and vegetables with high seedling support. , Wheat, cotton and other crops, cuttings of fruit trees are also used.
High ridge cover
The border is ridge-shaped, the bottom of the ridge is 50-85 cm wide, the ridge surface is 30-50 cm wide, and the ridge height is 10-15 cm. The plastic film covers the ridge surface. The ridge distance is 50-70 cm. Each ridge is planted with single or double rows of cabbage, lettuce, sweet pepper, cauliflower, etc. The high ridge cover is better to receive light, the ground temperature is easy to rise, and it can also be watered, but the ridge height in the arid area should not exceed 10 cm.
High border coverage
The planting surface is flat-topped, 10-15 cm above the ground level, and the border width is 1.00-1.65 m. The mulch is laid flat on the high-border surface. Generally grow high-vegetable support vegetables, such as melons, beans, eggplants and food, cotton crops. The high-temperature high-temperature warming effect is better, but the center of the border is prone to drought.
Set a trench about 50 cm wide and 15-20 cm deep, plant the seedlings in the trench, and cover the trench with plastic film. When the seedling grows against the plastic film, cut the plastic film into a cross on the top of the seedling , Known as cut vent. After the late frost, the seedling grows out of the membrane from the break, and when the seedling grows taller, the mulch is cut and turned into the ground, covering the root. Commonly known as covering the sky first, then covering the ground. It can be planted 7-10 days earlier. Protect against short-term frost damage in the short term. It not only plays the role of protecting seedlings, but also protects the roots, and achieves the effects of early maturity, increasing production and increasing profits. Cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, kidney bean, sweet pepper, tomato, cucumber and other vegetables can be planted in early spring, and watermelon, melon and other melons and food crops can also be planted early.
A slope-shaped trench with a depth of 40 cm and a width of 60-80 cm is formed on the ground, and the two trenches are separated by 2-5 meters (melon is 2 meters and watermelon is 5 meters), and the ground between the two trenches is round and ridge-shaped. The two following slopes in the ditch are covered with mulch of 70-75 cm, and the ground in the gully is round and round. The trench is covered with 70-75 cm of mulch along the slope, and two melons are sown in the trench.
On the flat border, high border or high ridge border surface is punched with hole punches, the depth of the hole is about 10 cm, the diameter is 10-15 cm, the seeds are planted or planted in the air, the plant row spacing is determined according to the crop requirements, and then on the top Cover the mulch and wait for the cut after the top of the seedling to vent. Potatoes and other crops can be grown.
1. Suitable for cultivating cucumber, green pepper, tomato, eggplant and other vegetables. Cover the film with a 90--100 cm width and a thickness of 0.01-0.008 mm on the high-border surface. The film is buried on the top of the border. 3-3 / 4 places. The specifications of high borders are: border width 100-110 cm, border surface width 80-85 cm, border height 10-15 cm, border groove 30--40 cm. When doing bordering, the border should be slightly higher to facilitate tight film laying.
2. Suitable for the cultivation of green onions, cabbage and other vegetables. The flat border width is 100-110 cm, and the border length can be customized according to the plot. Before planting, the plastic film can be spread on the border surface and compacted with soil around it. This form is more labor-saving than Gaoqi, but it is easy to pollute the border when irrigation, and it is not obvious to increase the ground temperature.
3. The specifications of the large ridges suitable for cultivation of green peppers, cabbages and other vegetables are: ridge bottom width 73 cm, ridge surface width 40 cm, and ridge height 17 cm. The mulch is covered on the surface of the ridge, and two or three rows are planted for each ridge.
4. Covering form suitable for cultivation of large kidney beans. The bottom width is 53 cm, the surface width is 33 cm, and the height is 16 cm. Cover the mulch with mulch.
5. Suitable for spring cabbage, water radish, anti-root vegetable covering form After the early spring cabbage, water radish sowing, or old root spinach, leek and other root vegetable greening, short-term covering the film on the surface of the border can promote its growth Early morning market.
6. Suitable for cultivation of green peppers, cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes, kidney beans and other vegetables in the form of covering 40-50 cm wide and 15-20 cm deep grooves on the surface of the high border, planting seedlings (or direct sowing) in the groove, and then Cover the mulch. After slowing the seedlings (after emergence), tie the plastic film on the top of the plant to the eye or cut the wind, and let the seedlings out of the membrane after the night frost. This form can be established early in the local night cream.
7. The covering form suitable for cultivated potatoes is on the high-border surface or the surface of large ridges. Use a hole-punch to drill a 15 cm deep planting hole according to the plant row spacing, sow or plant the seeds or seedlings in the hole, and then cover the plastic film to emerge or slow down After the seedlings shining eyes.
8. Suitable for the cultivation of green peppers, cucumbers, eggplants and other vegetables, the big ridges are broken into double ridges, and the seeds or seedlings are sown or planted on the inner ridges of the double ridges, and then covered with plastic film. The growth rate of seeds or seedlings in the space between the two ridges. After the late frost, the seedlings are led out of the membrane.
Rice plastic film
This technology can greatly increase the rice yield of cold-soaked muddy fields, Gaogangwangtiantian fields and water-scarce fields, and it plays an important role in solving the problem of longer proportion shortage. The film-covered rice technology increases the average yield by more than 100 kg per mu. This technology system mainly includes the wet-planting technology of rice-covered rice planting and the wet-planting technology of rice-covered hole. Rice mulching and transplanting wet cultivation technology is suitable for the application in the southern alpine field, cold soaked field, arid gang field and water-scarce field. The rice mulching hole sowing wet seeding technology is suitable for the drought or the area and heat resources are poor in the drought or Application in semi-arid areas.
(1) Wet cultivation technology of rice mulching and transplanting
Selection of drought nursery seedlings Select a variety that has a slightly longer cultivation period than local conventional cultivation and carry out drought nursery seedlings.
Choose the whole field to choose the alpine field, cold immersion field, dry hill field and water shortage field, the best effect, the whole field should reach Tianping mud. After the field has been leveled and the water has been leveled, before applying the fertilizer, re-apply the base fertilizer and apply more slow-release fertilizer.
Open the "three ditch" as the compartment cover, that is, the deep ditch, the waist ditch, and the shallow ditch. After the "three ditch" is opened, level the car surface, and then cover the film by rolling the film.
Specifications Transplanting rice seedlings is initially nailed on the wooden board according to the row spacing of the plant to make a "hole puncher". The holes are planted on the film and the seedlings are planted according to the holes. After transplanting rice seedlings, clear the water and make a thin layer of water on the membrane surface.
Tobacco cultivation technology
Tobacco film mulching cultivation is divided into two types: sub-film cultivation and film cultivation .
Soil preparation and ridge fertilization. In the area where tobacco and rice are rotated, the tobacco leaves will be planted in mid-March, and it is necessary to seize favorable weather and ridge the land to apply fertilizers by February. After weeding, weeding herbicide, then applying hole fertilizer, breaking the top soil of the knight cover film.
Cover film. The soil surface must be moist, and the membrane can only be covered when the water holding capacity reaches 80%. Otherwise, the membrane cannot be covered. When covering the film, it should be close to the side of the car, tight and straightened, and the surrounding soil should be pressed tightly, so that the wind can not move.
Planting tobacco. For cultivation under a film, if the film is covered before planting tobacco, one side of the film is peeled off when the tobacco is planted. After the seedlings are planted, water is poured, and then the film is covered. There is no cover film before planting tobacco. If it is cultivated on a film, make a small hole in the hole on the surface of the truck to plant the tobacco seedlings into the hole. After pouring the water and fertilizer, press the film mouth with soil.
Check seedlings to supplement. Seven minutes after planting, the tobacco fields were inspected and found that the dead seedlings were replenished in time.
Tobacco seedlings cultivated under the film must be opened in time when the leaf grows to withstand the mulch, or when the temperature in the film exceeds 30 ° C, the hole should be opened in time to expose the leaf of the tobacco seedling to the surface of the film and press the tie with soil it is good. Otherwise, the tobacco seedlings will burn out.
Reveal the film. When the film of tobacco seedlings is covered for about 40 days, or when it grows to the tree stage, the film must be removed in time. The residual film must be cleaned and handled in a centralized manner, and cannot be thrown around